Geographical distances between Tupían languages

Author: Tim Wientzek

The underlying data to create a tree of geographical distances between Tupían languages consists of the longitudes, latitudes and subfamilies of the respective doculects in TuLeD. The R packages “geosphere”, “ape” and “phytools” [1-4] were then used to create a matrix of geographical distances and draw a corresponding tree which is structured based on the neighbor-joining algorithm [5] and has been ladderized. For the calculation of the distances, the implementation of the Vincenty Formulae [6], which is said to have a maximum error of 0.5 mm for distances between any points on the globe, was selected from the “geosphere” package. The smallest calculated distance is 15.08 km between the coordinates of Kamayura and Awetí - at least if the distance between Zoró and Gavião is not considered as they share the same coordinates. Conversely, the largest distance is 4344.43 km between Cocama-Cocamilla and Tupinambá.